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  1. Tim Blanning,The Pursuit of Glory (New York:Penguin Books, 2008), 52.​​​​​​​​​

  2. 同上,53.并请参见: J. Neumann and S. Lindgrén, ‘Great Historical Events That Were Significantly Affected by the Weather:4, The Great Famines in Finland and Estonia, 1695–97’,Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 60 (1979), 775–87; Andrew B. Appleby, ‘Epidemics and Famine in the Little Ice Age’,Journal of Interdisciplinary History 10:4 (1980):643–63; Cormac Ó Gráda and Jean-Michel Chevet, ‘Famine and Marke tinAncien Régime France’,Journal of Economic History 62:3 (2002), 706–73.​​​​​​​​​

  3. Nicole Darmon et al., ‘L’insécurité alimentaire pour raisons financières en France’,Observatoire National de la Pauvreté et de l’Exclusion Sociale , https://www.onpes.gouv.fr/IMG/pdf/Darmon.pdf, accessed 3 March 2015; Rapport Annuel 2013,Banques Alimetaires , http://en.calameo.com/read/001358178ec47d2018425, accessed 4 March 2015.​​​​​​​​​

  4. Richard Dobbs et al., ‘How the World Could Better Fight Obesity’, McKinseys & Company, November, 2014, accessed 11 December 2014, http://www.mckinsey.com/insights/economic_studies/how_the_world_could_better_fight_obesity.

  5. ‘Global Burden of Disease, Injuries and Risk Factors Study 2013’,Lancet , 18 December 2014, accessed 18 December 2014, http://www.thelancet.com/themed/global-burden-of-disease; Stephen Adams, ‘Obesity Killing Three Times As Many As Malnutrition’,Telegraph , 13 December 2012, accessed 18 December 2014, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/health/healthnews/9742960/Obesity-killing-three-times-as-many-as-malnutrition.html​​​​​​​​​

  6. Robert S. Lopez,The Birth of Europe [in Hebrew] (Tel Aviv:Dvir, 1990), 427.​​​​​​​​​

  7. https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d0/Yersinia_pestis.jpg​​​​​​​​​

  8. Alfred W. Crosby,The Columbian Exchange:Biological and Cultural Consequences of 1492 (Westport:Greenwood Press, 1972); William H. McNeill,Plagues and Peoples (Oxford:Basil Blackwell, 1977).​​​​​​​​​

  9. Hugh Thomas,Conquest:Cortes,Montezuma and the Fall of Old Mexico (New York:Simon & Schuster, 1993), 443–6; Rodolfo Acuna-Soto et al., ‘Megadrought and Megadeath in 16th Century Mexico’,Historical Review 8:4 (2002), 360–2; Sherburne F. Cook and Lesley Byrd Simpson,The Population of Central Mexico in the Sixteenth Century (Berkeley:University of Califronia Press, 1948).​​​​​​​​​

  10. Jared Diamond,Guns, Germs and Steel:The Fates of Human Societies [in Hebrew] (Tel Avia:Am Oved, 2002), 167.​​​​​​​​​

  11. Jeffery K. Taubenberger and David M. Morens, ‘1918 Influenza:The Mother of All Pandemics’,Emerging Infectious Diseases 12:1 (2006), 15–22; Niall P. A. S. Johnson and Juergen Mueller, ‘Updating the Accounts:Global Mortality of the 1918–1920 “Spanish”Influenza Pandemic’,Bulletin of the History of Medicine 76:1 (2002), 105–15; Stacey L. Knobler, Alison Mack, Adel Mahmoud et al., ed.,The Threat of Pandemic Influenza:Are We Ready?Workshop Summary (Washington DC:National Academies Press 2005), 57–110; David van Reybrouck,Congo:The Epic History of a People (New York:HarperCollins, 2014), 164; Siddharth Chandra, Goran Kuljanin and Jennifer Wray, ‘Mortality from the Influenza Pandemic of 1918–1919:The Case of India’,Demography 49:3 (2012), 857–65; George C. Kohn,Encyclopedia of Plague and Pestilence:From Ancient Times to the Present , 3rd edn (New York:Facts on File, 2008), 363.​​​​​​​​​

  12. 从2005年到2010年的平均值,分别是全球4.6%、非洲7.9%、欧洲和北美0.7%。参见: ‘Infant Mortality Rate (Both Sexes Combined) by Major Area, Region and Country, 1950–2010 (Infant Deaths for 1000 Live Births), estimates’,World Population Prospects: the 2010 Revision , UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs, April 2011, accessed 26 May 2012, http://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp/Excel-Data/mortality.htm.同时参见Alain Bideau, Bertrand Desjardins, and Hector Perez-Brignoli, ed.,Infant and Child Mortality in the Past (Oxford:Clarendon Press, 1997); Edward Anthony Wrigley et al.,English Population Historyfrom Family Reconstitution, 1580 –1837 (Cambridge:Cambridge University Press, 1997), 295–6, 303.​​​​​​​​​

  13. David A. Koplow, Smallpox:The Fight to Eradicate a Global Scourge (Berkeley:University of California Press, 2004); Abdel R. Omran, ‘The Epidemiological Transition:A Theory of Population Change’,Milbank Memorial Fund Quarterly 83:4 (2005), 731–57; Thomas McKeown,The Modern Rise of Populations (New York:Academic Press, 1976); Simon Szreter,Health and Wealth:Studies in History and Policy (Rochester:University of Rochester Press, 2005); Roderick Floud, Robert W. Fogel, Bernard Harris and Sok Chul Hong,The Changing Body:Health, Nutrition and Human Development in the Western World since 1700 (New York:Cambridge University Press, 2011); James C. Riley,Rising Life Expectancy:A Global History (New York:Cambridge University Press, 2001).​​​​​​​​​

  14. ‘Cholera’, World Health Organization, February 2014, accessed 18 December 2014, http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs107/en/index.html.

  15. ‘Experimental Therapies:Growing Interest in the Use of Whole Blood or Plasma from Recovered Ebola Patients’, World Health Organization, September 26, 2014, accessed 23 April 2015, http://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/ebola/26–september-2014/en/.

  16. Hung Y. Fan, Ross F. Conner and Luis P. Villarreal,AIDS:Science and Society , 6th edn (Sudbury:Jones and Bartlett Publishers, 2011).​​​​​​​​​

  17. Peter Piot and Thomas C. Quinn, ‘Response to the AIDS Pandemic – A Global Health Model’,TheNew England Journal of Medicine 368:23 (2013):2210–18.​​​​​​​​​

  18. 在官方数据中,从未将“老死”列入死因。如果某位妇人年老体衰,最终因为某种感染而再也撑不下去,账面上就会将感染列为正式死因。因此从官方数据来看,因传染病而死的人仍然占总死亡人数的20%以上。然而现在的情形绝对已经和过去大为不同:当时传染病带走的是大批儿童及健壮成年人的生命。​​​​​​​​​

  19. David M. Livermore, ‘Bacterial Resistance:Origins, Epidemiology, and Impact’,Clinical Infectious Diseases 36:s1 (2005), s11–23; Richards G. Wax et al., ed.,Bacterial Resistance to Antimicrobials , 2nd edn (Boca Raton:CRC Press, 2008); Maja Babic and Robert A. Bonomo, ‘Mutations as a Basis of Antimicrobial Resistance’, inAntimicrobial Drug Resistance:Mechanisms of Drug Resistance , ed. Douglas Mayers, vol. 1 (New York:Humana Press, 2009), 65–74; Julian Davies and Dorothy Davies, ‘Origins and Evolution of Antibiotic Resistance’,Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews 74:3 (2010), 417–33; Richard J. Fair and Yitzhak Tor, ‘Antibiotics and Bacterial Resistance in the 21st Century’,Perspectives in Medicinal Chemistry 6 (2014), 25–64.​​​​​​​​​

  20. Alfonso J. Alanis, ‘Resistance to Antibiotics:Are We in the PostAntibiotic Era?’,Archives of Medical Research 36:6 (2005), 697–705; Stephan Harbarth and Matthew H. Samore, ‘Antimicrobial Resistance Determinants and Future Control’,Emerging Infectious Diseases 11:6 (2005), 794–801; Hiroshi Yoneyama and Ryoichi Katsumata, ‘Antibiotic Resistance in Bacteria and Its Future for Novel Antibiotic Development’,Bioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry 70:5 (2006), 1060–75; Cesar A. Arias and Barbara E. Murray, ‘Antibiotic-Resistant Bugs in the 21st Century – A Clinical Super-Challenge’,New England Journal of Medicine 360 (2009), 439–43; Brad Spellberg, John G. Bartlett and David N. Gilbert, ‘The Future of Antibiotics and Resistance’,New England Journal of Medicine 368 (2013), 299–302.​​​​​​​​​

  21. Losee L. Ling et al., ‘A New Antibiotic Kills Pathogens without Detectable Resistance’,Nature 517 (2015), 455–9; Gerard Wright, ‘Antibiotics:An Irresistible Newcomer’,Nature 517 (2015), 442–4.​​​​​​​​​

  22. Roey Tzezana,The Guide to the Future [in Hebrew] (Haifa:Roey Tzezana, 2013), 209–33.​​​​​​​​​

  23. Azar Gat,War in Human Civilization (Oxford:Oxford University Press, 2006), 130–1; Steven Pinker,The Better Angels of Our Nature:Why Violence Has Declined (New York:Viking, 2011); Joshua S. Goldstein,Winning the War on War:The Decline of Armed Conflict Worldwide (New York:Dutton, 2011); Robert S. Walker and Drew H. Bailey, ‘Body Counts in Lowland South American Violence’,Evolution and Human Behavior 34:1 (2013), 29–34; I. J. N. Thorpe, ‘Anthropology, Archaeology, and the Origin of Warfare’,World Archaology 35:1 (2003), 145–65; Raymond C. Kelly,Warless Societies and the Origin of War (Ann Arbor:University of Michigan Press, 2000); Lawrence H. Keeley,War before Civilization:The Myth of the Peaceful Savage (Oxford:Oxford University Press, 1996); Slavomil Vencl, ‘Stone Age Warfare’, inAncient Warfare:Archaeological Perspectives , ed. John Carman and Anthony Harding (Stroud:Sutton Publishing, 1999), 57–73.​​​​​​​​​

  24. ‘Global Health Observatory Data Repository, 2012’, World Health Organization, accessed 16 August 2015, http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.RCODWORLD?lang=en; ‘Global Study on Homicide, 2013’, UNDOC, accessed 16 August 2015, http://www.unodc.org/documents/gsh/pdfs/2014_GLOBAL_HOMICIDE_BOOK_web.pdf; http://www.who.int/healthinfo/global_burden_disease/estimates/en/index1.html.

  25. Van Reybrouck,Congo , 456–7.​​​​​​​​​

  26. 关于肥胖造成的死亡: ‘Global Burden of Disease, Injuries and Risk Factors Study 2013’,Lancet , 18 December 2014, accessed 18 December 2014, http://www.thelancet.com/themed/global-burden-of-disease; Stephen Adams, ‘Obesity Killing Three Times As Many As Malnutrition’,Telegraph , 13 December 2012, accessed 18 December 2014, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/health/healthnews/9742960/Obesity-killing-three-times-as-many-as-malnutrition.html.关于恐怖主义造成的死亡: Global Terrorism Database , http://www.start.umd.edu/gtd/, accessed 16 January 2016.​​​​​​​​​

  27. Arion McNicoll, ‘How Google’s Calico Aims to Fight Aging and “Solve Death”’, CNN, 3 October 2013, accessed 19 December 2014, http://edition.cnn.com/2013/10/03/tech/innovation/google-calico-aging-death/.

  28. Katrina Brooker, ‘Google Ventures and the Search for Immortality’,Bloomberg , 9 March 2015, accessed 15 April 2015, http://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2015–03–09/google-ventures-bill-maris-investing-in-idea-ofliving-to-500.​​​​​​​​​

  29. Mick Brown, ‘Peter Thiel:The Billionaire Tech Entrepreneur on a Mission to Cheat Death’,Telegraph , 19 September 2014, accessed 19 December 2014, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/11098971/Peter-Thiel-thebillionaire-tech-entrepreneur-on-a-mission-to-cheat-death.html.

  30. Kim Hill et al., ‘Mortality Rates among Wild Chimpanzees’,Journal of Human Evolution 40:5 (2001):437–50; James G. Herndon, ‘Brain Weight Throughout the Life Span of the Chimpanzee’,Journal of Comparative Neurology 409 (1999):567–72.​​​​​​​​​

  31. Beatrice Scheubel,Bismarck ’s Institutions:A Historical Perspective on the Social Security Hypothesis (Tubingen:Mohr Siebeck, 2013); E. P. Hannock,The Origin of the Welfare State in England and Germany, 1850 –1914 (Cambridge:Cambridge University Press, 2007).​​​​​​​​​

  32. ‘Mental Health:Age Standardized Suicide Rates (per 100,000 Population), 2012’, World Health Organization, accessed 28 December 2014, http://gamapserver.who.int/gho/interactive_charts/mental_health/suicide_rates/atlas.html.

  33. Ian Morris,Why the West Rules – For Now (Toronto:McClelland & Stewart, 2010), 626–9.​​​​​​​​​

  34. David G. Myers, ‘The Funds, Friends, and Faith of Happy People’,American Psychologist 55:1 (2000), 61; Ronald Inglehart et al., ‘Development, Freedom, and Rising Happiness:A Global Perspective (1981–2007)’,Perspectives on Psychological Science 3:4 (2008), 264–85.同时参见Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, ‘If We Are So Rich, Why Aren’t We Happy?’,American Psychologist 54:10 (1999), 821–7; Gregg Easterbrook,The Progress Paradox:How Life Gets Better While People Feel Worse (New York:Random House, 2003).​​​​​​​​​

  35. Kenji Su z uki, ‘Are They Frigid to the Ec onomic Development?Reconsideration of the Economic Effect on Subjective Well-being in Japan’,Social Indicators Research 92:1 (2009), 81–9; Richard A. Easterlin, ‘Will Raising the Incomes of all Increase the Happiness of All?’,Journal of Economic Bheavior and Organization 27:1 (1995), 35–47; Richard A. Easterlin, ‘Diminishing Marginal Utility of Income?Caveat Emptor’,Social Indicators Research 70:3 (2005), 243–55.​​​​​​​​​

  36. Linda C. Raeder,John Stuart Mill and the Religion of Humanity (Columbia:University of Missouri Press, 2002).​​​​​​​​​

  37. Oliver Turnbull and Mark Solms,TheBrain and the Inner World [in Hebrew] (Tel Aviv:Hakibbutz Hameuchad, 2005), 92–6; Kent C. Berridge and Morten L. Kringelbach, ‘Affective Neuroscience of Pleasure:Reward in Humans and Animals’,Psychopharmacology 199 (2008), 457–80; Morten L. Kringelbach,The Pleasure Center:Trust Your Animal Instincts (Oxford:Oxford University Press, 2009).​​​​​​​​​

  38. M. Csikszentmihalyi,Finding Flow:The Psychology of Engagement with Everyday Life (New York:Basic Books, 1997).​​​​​​​​​

  39. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), http://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/adhd/data.html, accessed 4 January 2016; Sarah Harris, ‘Number of Children Given Drugs for ADHD Up Ninefold with Patients As Young As Three Being Prescribed Ritalin’,Daily Mail , 28 June 2013, http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-2351427/Number-children-given-drugs-ADHD-ninefold-patients-young-THREEprescribed-Ritalin.html, accessed 4 January 2016; International Narcotics Control Board (UN),Psychotropics Substances, Statistics for 2013, Assessments of Annual Medical and Scientific Requirements 2014 , 39–40.​​​​​​​​​

  40. 关于学生滥用此类兴奋剂的证据仍然不足,但2013年的一项研究发现,美国大学生有5%~15%曾非法使用某种兴奋剂至少一次: C. Ian Ragan, Imre Bard and Ilina Singh, ‘What Should We Do about Student Use of Cognitive Enhancers?An Analysis of Current Evidence’,Neuropharmacology 64 (2013), 589.​​​​​​​​​

  41. Bradley J. Partridge, ‘Smart Drugs “As Common as Coffee”:Media Hype about Neuroenhancement’,PLoS One 6:11 (2011), e28416.​​​​​​​​​

  42. Office of the Chief of Public Affairs Press Release, ‘Army, Health Promotion Risk Reduction Suicide Prevention Report, 2010’, accessed 23 December 2014, http://csf2.army.mil/downloads/HP-RR-SPReport2010.pdf; Mark Thompson, ‘America’s Medicated Army’,Time , 5 June 2008, accessed 19 December 2014, http://content.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1812055,00.html; Office of the Surgeon Multi-National ForceIraq and Office of the Command Surgeon, ‘Mental Health Advisory Team (MHAT) V Operation Iraqi Freedom 06–08:Iraq Operation Enduring Freedom 8:Afghanistan’, 14 February 2008, accessed 23 December 2014, http://www.careforthetroops.org/reports/Report-MHATV-4–FEB-2008–Overview.pdf.

  43. Tina L. Dorsey, ‘Drugs and Crime Facts’, US Department of Justice, accessed 20 February 2015, http://www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/dcf.pdf; H. C. West, W. J. Sabol and S. J. Greenman, ‘Prisoners in 2009’, US Department of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics Bulletin (December 2010), 1–38; ‘Drugs And Crime Facts:Drug use and Crime’, US Department of Justice, accessed 19 December 2014, http://www.bjs.gov/content/dcf/duc.cfm; ‘Offender Management Statistics Bulletin, July to September 2014’, UK Ministry of Justice, 29 January 2015, accessed 20 February 2015, https://www.gov.uk/government/statistics/offender-management-statistics-quarterly-julyto-september-2014.; Mirian Lights et al., ‘Gender Differences in Substance Misuse and Mental Health amongst Prisoners’, UK Ministry of Justice, 2013, accessed 20 February 2015, https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/220060/gender-substance-misuse-mental-healthprisoners.pdf; Jason Payne and Antonette Gaffney, ‘How Much Crime is Drug or Alcohol Related?Self-Reported Attributions of Police Detainees’,Trends & Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice 439 (2012), http://www.aic.gov.au/media_library/publications/tandi_pdf/tandi439.pdf, accessed 11 March 2015; Philippe Robert, ‘The French Criminal Justice System’, in Punishment in Europe:A Critical Anatomy of Penal Systems , ed. Vincenzo Ruggiero and Mick Ryan (Houndmills:Palgrave Macmillan, 2013), 116.​​​​​​​​​

  44. Betsy Isaacson, ‘Mind Control:How EEG Devices Will Read Your Brain Waves And Change Your World’,Huffington Post , 20 November 2014, accessed 20 December 2014, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/11/20/mindcontrol-how-eeg-devices-read-brainwaves_n_2001431.html; ‘EPOC Headset’,Emotiv , http://emotiv.com/store/epoc-detail/; ‘Biosensor Innovation to Power Breakthrough Wearable Technologies Today and Tomorrow’,NeuroSky , http://neurosky.com/.

  45. Samantha Payne, ‘Stockholm:Members of Epicenter Workspace Are Using Microchip Implants to Open Doors’,International Business Times , 31 January 2015, accessed 9 August 2015, http://www.ibtimes.co.uk/stockholmoffice-workers-epicenter-implanted-microchips-pay-their-lunch-1486045.

  46. Meika Loe,The Rise of Viagra:How the Little Blue Pill Changed Sex in America (New York:New York University Press, 2004).​​​​​​​​​

  47. Brian Morgan, ‘Saints and Sinners:Sir Harold Gillies’,Bulletin of the Royal College of Surgeons of England , 95:6 (2013), 204–5; Donald W. Buck II, ‘A Link to Gillies:One Surgeon’s Quest to Uncover His Surgical Roots’,Annals of Plastic Surgery 68:1 (2012), 1–4.​​​​​​​​​

  48. Paolo Santoni-Rugio,A History of Plastic Surgery (Berlin, Heidelberg:Springer, 2007); P. Niclas Broer, Steven M. Levine and Sabrina Juran, ‘Plastic Surgery:Quo Vadis?Current Trends and Future Projections of Aesthetic Plastic Surgical Procedures in the United States’,Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery 133:3 (2014):293e–302e.​​​​​​​​​

  49. Holly Firfer, ‘How Far Will Couples Go to Conceive?’, CNN, 17 June 2004, accessed 3 May 2015, http://edition.cnn.com/2004/HEALTH/03/12/infertility.treatment/index.html?iref=allsearch.

  50. Rowena Mason and Hannah Devlin, ‘MPs Vote in Favour of “ThreePerson Embryo”Law’,Guardian , 3 February 2015, accessed 3 May 2015, http://www.theguardian.com/science/2015/feb/03/mps-vote-favour-three-personembryo-law.

  51. Lionel S. Smith and Mark D. E. Fellowes, ‘Towards a Lawn without Grass:The Journey of the Imperfect Lawn and Its Analogues’,Studies in the History of Gardens & Designed Landscape 33:3 (2013), 158–9; John Dixon Hunt and Peter Willis, ed.,The Genius of the Place:The English Landscape Garden 1620 –1820 , 5th edn (Cambridge, MA:MIT Press, 2000), 1–45; Anne Helmriech,The English Garden and National Identity:The Competing Styles of Garden Design 1870 –1914 (Cambridge:Cambridge University Press, 2002), 1–6.​​​​​​​​​

  52. Robert J. Lake, ‘Social Class, Etiquette and Behavioral Restraint in British Lawn Tennis’,International Journal of the History of Sport 28:6 (2011), 876–94; Beatriz Colomina, ‘The Lawn at War:1941–1961’, inThe American Lawn , ed. Georges Teyssot (New York:Princeton Architectural Press, 1999), 135–53; Virginia Scott Jenkins,The Lawn:History of an American Obsession (Washington:Smithsonian Institution, 1994).


  1. ‘Canis lupus ’, IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, accessed 20 December 2014, http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/3746/1; ‘Fact Sheet:Gray Wolf’,Defenders of Wildlife , accessed 20 December 2014, http://www.defenders.org/gray-wolf/basic-facts; ‘Companion Animals’,IFAH , accessed 20 December 2014, http://www.ifaheurope.org/companion-animals/about-pets.html; ‘Global Review 2013’, World Animal Protection, accessed 20 December 2014, https://www.worldanimalprotection.us.org/sites/default/files/us_files/global_review_2013_0.pdf.

  2. Anthony D. Barnosky, ‘Megafauna Biomass Tradeoff as a Driver of Quaternary and Future Extinctions’,PNAS 105:1 (2008), 11543–8;关于狼和狮子: William J. Ripple et al., ‘Status and Ecological Effects of the World’s Largest Carnivores’,Science 343:6167 (2014), 151;Stanley Coren博士认为世界上有大约5亿条狗: Stanley Coren, ‘How Many Dogs Are There in the World’,Psychology Today , 19 September 2012, accessed 20 December 2014, http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/canine-corner/201209/how-many-dogsare-there-in-the-world;关于猫的数目,请见: Nicholas Wade, ‘DNA Traces 5 Matriarchs of 600 Million Domestic Cats’,New York Times , 29 June 2007, accessed 20 December 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2007/06/29/health/29ihtcats.1.6406020.html;关于非洲水牛,请见: ‘Syncerus caffer’, IUCN Red List of Threa- tened Species, accessed 20 December 2014, http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/21251/0;关于牛的数目,请见: David Cottle and Lewis Kahn, ed.,Beef Cattle Production and Trade (Collingwood:Csiro, 2014), 66;关于鸡的数目,请见: ‘Live Animals’,Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations:Statistical Division , accessed December 20, 2014, http://faostat3.fao.org/browse/Q/QA/E;关于黑猩猩的数目,请见: ‘Pan troglodytes’, IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, accessed 20 December 2014, http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/15933/0.

  3. ‘Living Planet Report 2014’, WWF Global, accessed 20 December 2014, http://wwf.panda.org/about_our_earth/all_publications/living_planet_report/.

  4. Richard Inger et al., ‘Common European Birds are Declining Rapidly While Less Abundant Species’ Numbers Are Rising’,Ecology Letters 18:1 (2014), 28–36; ‘Live Animals’, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, accessed 20 December 2014, http://faostat.fao.org/site/573/default.aspx#ancor.

  5. Simon L. Lewis and Mark A. Maslin, ‘Defining the Anthropocene’,Nature 519 (2015), 171–80.​​​​​​​​​

  6. Timothy F. Flannery,The Future Eaters:An Ecological History of the Australasian Lands and Peoples (Port Melbourne:Reed Books Australia, 1994); Anthony D. Barnosky et al., ‘Assessing the Causes of Late Pleistocene Extinctions on the Continents’,Science 306:5693 (2004), 70–5; Bary W. Brook and David M. J. S. Bowman, ‘The Uncertain Blitzkrieg of Pleistocene Megafauna’,Journal of Biogeography 31:4 (2004), 517–23; Gifford H. Miller et al., ‘Ecosystem Collapse in Pleistocene Australia and a Human Role in Megafaunal Extinction’,Science 309:5732 (2005), 287–90; Richard G. Roberts et al., ‘New Ages for the Last Australian Megafauna:Continent Wide Extinction about 46,000 Years Ago’,Science 292:5523 (2001), 1888–92; Stephen Wroe and Judith Field, ‘A Review of Evidence for a Human Role in the Extinction of Australian Megafauna and an Alternative Explanation’,Quaternary Science Reviews 25:21–2 (2006), 2692–703; Barry W. Brooks et al., ‘Would the Australian Megafauna Have Become Extinct If Humans Had Never Colonised the Continent?Comments on “A Review of the Evidence for a Human Role in the Extinction of Australian Megafauna and an Alternative Explanation”by S. Wroe and J. Field’,Quaternary Science Reviews 26:3–4 (2007), 560–4; Chris S. M. Turney et al., ‘Late-Surviving Megafauna in Tasmania, Australia, Implicate Human Involvement in their Extinction’,PNAS 105:34 (2008), 12150–3; John Alroy, ‘A Multispecies Overkill Simulation of the End-Pleistocene Megafaunal Mass Extinction’,Science 292:5523 (2001), 1893–6; J. F. O’Connel and J. Allen, ‘Pre-LGM Sahul (Australia-New Guinea) and the Archaeology of Early Modern Humans’, inRethinking the Human Evolution:New Behavioral and Biological Perspectives on the Origin and Dispersal of Modern Humans , ed. Paul Mellars (Cambridge:McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research, 2007), 400–1.​​​​​​​​​

  7. Graham Harvey,Animism:Respecting the Living World (Kent Town:Wakefield Press, 2005); Rane Willerslev,Soul Hunters:Hunting, Animism and Personhood Among the Siberian Yukaghirs (Berkeley:University of California Press, 2007); Elina Helander-Renvall, ‘Animism, Personhood and the Nature of Reality:Sami Perspectives’,Polar Record 46:1 (2010), 44–56; Istvan Praet, ‘Animal Conceptions in Animism and Conservation’, inRoutledge Handbook of Human-Animal Studies , ed. Susan McHaugh and Garry Marvin (New York:Routledge, 2014), 154–67; Nurit Bird-David, ‘Animism Revisited:Personhood, Environment, and Relational Epistemology’,Current Anthropology 40 (1999): s67–91; N. Bird-David, ‘Animistic Epistemology:Why Some Hunter-Gatherers Do Not Depict Animals’,Ethnos 71:1 (2006):33–50.​​​​​​​​​

  8. Danny Naveh, ‘Changes in the Perception of Animals and Plants with the Shift to Agricultural Life:What Can Be Learnt from the Nayaka Case, A HunterGatherer Society from the Rain Forests of Southern India?’[in Hebrew],Animals and Society , 52 (2015):7–8.​​​​​​​​​

  9. Howard N. Wallace, ‘The Eden Narrative’,Harvard Semitic Monographs 32 (1985), 147–81.​​​​​​​​​

  10. David Adams Leeming and Margaret Adams Leeming,Encyclopedia of Creation Myths (Santa Barbara:ABC-CLIO, 1994), 18; Sam D. Gill,Storytracking:Texts, Stories, and Histories in Central Australia (Oxford:Oxford University Press, 1998); Emily Miller Bonney, ‘Disarming the Snake Goddess:A Reconsideration of the Faience Figures from the Temple Repositories at Knossos’,Journal of Mediterranean Archaeology 24:2 (2011), 171–90; David Leeming,The Oxford Companion to World Mythology (Oxford and New York:Oxford University Press, 2005), 350.​​​​​​​​​

  11. Jerome H. Barkow, Leda Cosmides and John Tooby, ed.,The Adapted Mind:Evolutionary Psychology and the Generation of Culture (Oxford:Oxford University Press, 1992); Richard W. Bloom and Nancy Dess, ed.,Evolutionary Psychology and Violence:A Primer for Policymakers and Public Policy Advocates (Westport:Praeger, 2003); Charles Crawford and Catherine Salmon, ed.,Evolutionary Psychology, Public Policy and Personal Decisions (New Jersey:Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 2008); Patrick McNamara and David Trumbull,An Evolutionary Psychology of Leader –Follower Relations (New York:Nova Science, 2007); Joseph P. Forgas, Martie G. Haselton and William von Hippel, ed.,Evolution and the Social Mind:Evolutionary Psychology and Social Cognition (New York:Psychology Press, 2011).​​​​​​​​​

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  15. Humane Society of the United States, ‘An HSUS Report:Welfare Issues with Gestation Crates for Pregnant Sows’, February 2013, http://www.humanesociety.org/assets/pdfs/farm/HSUS-Report-on-Gestation-Crates-forPregnant-Sows.pdf, retrieved 27 January 2016.​​​​​​​​​

  16. Turnbull and Solms,Brain and the Inner World , 90–2.​​​​​​​​​

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  18. Daniel Kahneman,Thinking, Fast and Slow (New York:Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 2011); Dan Ariely,Predictably Irrational (New York:Harper, 2009).​​​​​​​​​

  19. Justin Gregg,Are Dolphins Really Smart?The Mammal Behind the Myth (Oxford:Oxford University Press, 2013), 81–7; Jaak Panksepp, ‘Affective Consciousness:Core Emotional Feelings in Animals and Humans’,Consciousness and Cognition 14:1 (2005), 30–80.​​​​​​​​​

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  21. Jean O’Malley Halley,Boundaries of Touch:Parenting and Adult –Child Intimacy (Urbana:University of Illinois Press, 2007), 50–1; Ann Taylor Allen,Feminism and Motherhood in Western Europe, 1890 –1970:The Maternal Dilemma (New York:Palgrave Macmillan, 2005), 190.​​​​​​​​​

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  27. Benjamin R. Foster, ed.,The Epic of Gilgamesh (New York, London:W. W. Norton, 2001), 90.​​​​​​​​​

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  29. Talmud Bavli, Bava Metzia, 85:71.​​​​​​​​​

  30. Christopher Chapple,Nonviolence to Animals, Earth and Self in Asian Traditions (New York:State University of New York Press, 1993); Panchor Prime,Hinduism and Ecology:Seeds of Truth (London:Cassell, 1992); Christopher Key Chapple, ‘The Living Cosmos of Jainism:A Traditional Science Grounded in Environmental Ethics’,Daedalus 130:4 (2001), 207–24; Norm Phelps,The Great Compassion:Buddhism and Animal Rights (New York:Lantern Books, 2004); Damien Keown,Buddhist Ethics:A Very Short Introduction (Oxford:Oxford University Press, 2005), ch. 3; Kimberley Patton and Paul Waldau, ed.,A Communion of Subjects:Animals in Religion, Science and Ethics (New York:Columbia University Press, 2006), esp.179–250; Pragati Sahni,Environmental Ethics in Buddhism:A Virtues Approach (New York:Routledge, 2008); Lisa Kemmerer and Anthony J. Nocella II, ed.,Call to Compassion:Reflections on Animal Advocacy from the World ’s Religions (New York:Lantern, 2011), esp.15–103; Lisa Kemmerer,Animals and World Religions (Oxford:Oxford University Press, 2012), esp.56–126; Irina Aristarkhova, ‘Thou Shall Not Harm All Living Beings:Feminism, Jainism and Animals’,Hypatia 27:3 (2012):636–50; Eva de Clercq, ‘Karman and Compassion:Animals in the Jain Universal History’,Religions of South Asia 7 (2013):141–57.​​​​​​​​​

  31. Naveh, ‘Changes in the Perception of Animals and Plants’, 11.​​​​​​​​​


  1. ‘Evolution, Creationism, Intelligent Design’, Gallup, accessed 20 December 2014, http://www.gallup.com/poll/21814/evolution-creationismintelligent-design.aspx; Frank Newport, ‘In US, 46 percent Hold Creationist View of Human Origins’, Gallup, 1 June 2012, accessed 21 December 2014, http://www.gallup.com/poll/155003/hold-creationist-view-human-origins.aspx.

  2. Gregg,Are Dolphins Really Smart? , 82–3.​​​​​​​​​

  3. Stanislas Dehaene,Consciousness and the Brain:Deciphering How the Brain Codes Our Thoughts (New York:Viking, 2014); Steven Pinker,How the Mind Works (New York:W. W. Norton, 1997).​​​​​​​​​

  4. Dehaene,Consciousness and the Brain .​​​​​​​​​

  5. 有些专家可能会提到哥德尔不完备定理(Gödel’s incompleteness theorem),也就是认为没有任何数学的公理(axiom)系统能够证明所有算术真理,一定会有某些真实的陈述,无法在该系统中证明。而在通俗文学里,有时候就会把这项定理挪用过来,用以说明心灵的存在。照其说法,正是因为有无法证明的事实,所以需要用心灵来处理。只不过,一般人只是想要生存和繁衍,实在看不出来为什么需要与这些神秘的数学真理扯上关系。事实上,我们绝大多数有意识的决定,都与以上这些问题完全无关。​​​​​​​​​

  6. Christopher Steiner,Automate This:How Algorithms Came to Rule Our World (New York:Penguin, 2012), 215; Tom Vanderbilt, ‘Let the Robot Drive:The Autonomous Car of the Future is Here’,Wired , 20 January 2012, accessed 21 December 2014, http://www.wired.com/2012/01/ff_autonomouscars/all/; Chris Urmson, ‘The Self-Driving Car Logs More Miles on New Wheels’, Google Official Blog, 7 August 2012, accessed 23 December 2014, http://googleblog.blogspot.hu/2012/08/the-self-driving-car-logs-more-miles-on.html; Matt Richtel and Conor Dougherty, ‘Google’s Driverless Cars Run Into Problem:Cars With Drivers’,New York Times , 1 September 2015, accessed 2 September 2015, http://www.nytimes.com/2015/09/02/technology/personaltech/google-says-its-not-the-driverless-cars-fault-its-other-drivers.html?_r=1.

  7. Dehaene,Consciousness and the Brain .​​​​​​​​​

  8. Ibid., ch. 7.​​​​​​​​​

  9. ‘The Cambridge Declaration on Consciousness’, 7 July 2012, accessed 21 December 2014, https://web.archive.org/web/20131109230457/http://fcmconference.org/img/CambridgeDeclarationOnConsciousness.pdf.

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  12. 关于不同程度的自我意识,请参见: Gregg,Are Dolphins Really Smart? , 59–66.​​​​​​​​​

  13. Carolyn R. Raby et al., ‘Planning for the Future by Western Scrub Jays’,Nature 445:7130 (2007), 919–21.​​​​​​​​​

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  15. Gregg,Are Dolphins Really Smart? ; Nicola S.Clayton, Timothy J. Bussey, and Anthony Dickinson, ‘Can Animals Recall the Past and Plan for the Future?’,Nature Reviews Neuroscience 4:8 (2003), 685–91; William A. Roberts, ‘Are Animals Stuck in Time?’,Psychological Bulletin 128:3 (2002), 473–89; Endel Tulving, ‘Episodic Memory and Autonoesis:Uniquely Human?’, inThe Missing Link in Cognition:Evolution of Self-Knowing Consciousness , ed. Herbert S. Terrace and Janet Metcalfe (Oxford:Oxford University Press), 3–56; Mariam Naqshbandi and William A. Roberts, ‘Anticipation of Future Events in Squirrel Monkeys (Saimiri sciureus ) and Rats (Rattus norvegicus ):Tests of the BischofKohler Hypothesis’,Journal of Comparative Psychology 120:4 (2006), 345–57.​​​​​​​​​

  16. I. B. A. Bartal, J. Decety and P. Mason, ‘Empathy and Pro-Social Behavior in Rats’,Science 334:6061 (2011), 1427–30;Gregg,Are Dolphins Really Smart? , 89.​​​​​​​​​

  17. Karl Krall,Denkende Tiere: Beiträge zur Tierseelenkunde auf Grund eigener Versuche (Leipzig: F. Engelmann, 1912).​​​​​​​​​

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  19. See also Edward O. Wilson,The Social Conquest of the Earth (New York:Liveright, 2012).​​​​​​​​​

  20. Cyril Edwin Black, ed.,The Transformation of Russian Society:Aspects of Social Change since 1861 (Cambridge, MA:Harvard University Press, 1970), 279.​​​​​​​​​

  21. Tom Gallagher,Theft of a Nation:Romania since Communism (London:Hurst, 2005).​​​​​​​​​

  22. Robin Dunbar,Grooming, Gossip, and the Evolution of Language (Cambridge, MA:Harvard University Press, 1998).​​​​​​​​​

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  24. Quoted in Christopher Duffy,Military Experience in the Age of Reason (London:Routledge, 2005), 98–9.​​​​​​​​​

  25. Serhii Ploghy,The Last Empire:The Final Days of the Soviet Union (London:Oneworld, 2014), 309.​​​​​​​​​

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  6. Sam Harris,The Moral Landscape:How Science Can Determine Human Values (New York:Free Press, 2010).​​​​​​​​​


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  5. UNEP,The Emissions Gap Report 2012 (Nairobi:UNEP, 2012); IEA,Energy Policies of IEA Countries:The United States (Paris:IEA, 2008).​​​​​​​​​

  6. For a detailed discussion see Ha-Joon Chang,23 Things They Don ’t Tell You About Capitalism (New York:Bloomsbury Press, 2010).​​​​​​​​​


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  13. Mark Harrison, ed.,The Economics of World War II:Six Great Powers in International Comparison (Cambridge:Cambridge University Press, 1998), 3–10; John Ellis,World War II:A Statistical Survey (New York:Facts on File, 1993); I. C. B Dear, ed.,The Oxford Companion to the Second World War (Oxford:Oxford University Press, 1995).​​​​​​​​​

  14. ‘Saigon-hubert-van-es’ by Source.Licensed under fair use via Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Saigon-hubert-van-es.jpg#/media/File:Saigon-hubert-van-es.jpg.

  15. Donna Haraway, ‘A Cyborg Manifesto:Science, Technology, and Socialist-Feminism in the Late Twentieth Century’, inSimians, Cyborgs and Women:The Reinvention of Nature , ed. Donna Haraway (New York:Routledge, 1991), 149–81.


  1. 详细讨论请见Michael S. Gazzaniga,Who ’s in Charge?: Free Will and the Science of the Brain (New York:Ecco, 2011).​​​​​​​​​

  2. Chun Siong Soon et al., ‘Unconscious Determinants of Free Decisions in the Human Brain’,Nature Neuroscience 11:5 (2008), 543–5.See also Daniel Wegner,The Illusion of Conscious Will (Cambridge, MA:MIT Press, 2002); Benjamin Libet, ‘Unconscious Cerebral Initiative and the Role of Conscious Will in Voluntary Action’,Behavioral and Brain Sciences 8 (1985), 529–66.​​​​​​​​​

  3. Sanjiv K. Talwar et al., ‘Rat Navigation Guided by Remote Control’,Nature 417:6884 (2002), 37–8; Ben Harder, ‘Scientists “Drive”Rats by Remote Control’,National Geographic , 1 May 2012, accessed 22 December 2014, http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2002/05/0501_020501_roborats.html; Tom Clarke, ‘Here Come the Ratbots:Desire Drives Remote-Controlled Rodents’,Nature , 2 May 2002, accessed 22 December 2014, http://www.nature.com/news/1998/020429/full/news020429–9.html; Duncan Graham-Rowe, ‘“Roborat”Controlled by Brain Electrodes’,New Scientist , 1 May 2002, accessed 22 December 2014, http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn2237–roboratcontrolled-by-brain-electrodes.html#.UwOPiNrNtkQ.

  4. http://fusion.net/story/204316/darpa-is-implanting-chips-in-soldiersbrains/; http://www.theverge.com/2014/5/28/5758018/darpa-teams-begin-workon-tiny-brain-implant-to-treat-ptsd.

  5. Smadar Reisfeld, ‘Outside of the Cuckoo’s Nest’,Haaretz , 6 March 2015.​​​​​​​​​

  6. Dan Hurley, ‘US Military Leads Quest for Futuristic Ways to Boost IQ’,Newsweek , 5 March 2014, http://www.newsweek.com/2014/03/ 14/usmilitary-leads-quest-futuristic-ways-boost-iq-247945.html, accessed 9 January 2015; Human Effectiveness Directorate, http://www.wpafb.af.mil/afrl/rh/index.asp; R. Andy McKinley et al., ‘Acceleration of Image Analyst Training with Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation’,Behavioral Neuroscience 127:6 (2013):936–46; Jeremy T. Nelson et al., ‘Enhancing Vigilance in Operators with Prefrontal Cortex Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (TDCS)’,NeuroImage 85 (2014):909–17; Melissa Scheldrup et al., ‘Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Facilities Cognitive Multi-Task Performance Differentially Depending on Anode Location and Subtask’,Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 8 (2014); Oliver Burkeman, ‘Can I Increase my Brain Power?’,Guardian , 4 January 2014, http://www.theguardian.com/science/2014/jan/04/can-i-increasemy-brain-power, accessed 9 January 2016; Heather Kelly, ‘Wearable Tech to Hack Your Brain’, CNN, 23 October 2014, http://www.cnn.com/2014/10/22/tech/innovation/brain-stimulation-tech/. accessed 9 January 2016.​​​​​​​​​

  7. Sally Adee, ‘Zap Your Brain into the Zone:Fast Track to Pure Focus’,New Scientist , 6 February 2012, accessed 22 December 2014, http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg21328501.600–zap-your-brain-into-the-zone-fast-track-to-pure-focus.html.同时参见: R. Douglas Fields, ‘Amping Up Brain Function:Transcranial Stimulation Shows Promise in Speeding Up Learning’,Scientific American , 25 November 2011, accessed 22 December 2014, http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/amping-up-brain-function.

  8. Sally Adee, ‘How Electrical Brain Stimulation Can Change the Way We Think’,The Week, 30 March 2012, accessed 22 December 2014, http://theweek.com/article/index/226196/how-electrical-brain-stimulation-can-change-the-waywe-think/2.

  9. E. Bianconi et al., ‘An Estimation of the Number of Cells in the Human Body,’Annals of Human Biology 40:6 (2013):463–71.​​​​​​​​​

  10. Oliver Sacks,The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat (London:Picador, 1985), 73–5.​​​​​​​​​

  11. Joseph E. LeDoux, Donald H. Wilson, Michael S. Gazzaniga, ‘A Divided Mind:Observations on the Conscious Properties of the Separated Hemispheres’,Annals of Neurology 2:5 (1977), 417–21.同时参见: D. Galin, ‘Implications for Psychiatry of Left and Right Cerebral Specialization:A Neurophysiological Context for Unconscious Processes’,Archives of General Psychiatry , 31:4 (1974), 572–83; R. W. Sperry, M. S. Gazzaniga and J. E. Bogen, ‘Interhemispheric relationships:The Neocortical Commisures:Syndromes of Hemisphere Disconnection’, inHandbook of Clinical Neurology , ed. P. J. Vinken and G. W. Bruyn (Amsterdam:North Holland Publishing Co., 1969), vol. 4.​​​​​​​​​

  12. Michael S. Gazzaniga,The Bisected Brain (New York:AppletonCentury-Crofts, 1970); Gazzaniga,Who ’s in Charge? ; Carl Senior, Tamara Russell, and Michael S. Gazzaniga,Methods in Mind (Cambridge, MA:MIT Press, 2006); David Wolman, ‘The Split Brain:A Tale of Two Halves’,Nature 483 (14 March 2012):260–3.​​​​​​​​​

  13. Galin, ‘Implications for Psychiatry of Left and Right Cerebral Specialization’, 573–4.​​​​​​​​​

  14. Springer and Deutsch,Left Brain, Right Brain, 3rd edn (New York:W. H. Freeman, 1989), 32–6.​​​​​​​​​

  15. Kahneman,Thinking, Fast and Slow , 377–410.同时参见Gazzaniga,Who ’s in Charge? , ch. 3.​​​​​​​​​

  16. Eran Chajut et al., ‘In Pain Thou Shalt Bring Forth Children:The Peakand-End Rule in Recall of Labor Pain’,Psychological Science 25:12 (2014), 2266–71.​​​​​​​​​

  17. Ulla Waldenström, ‘Women’s Memory of Childbirth at Two Months and One Year after the Birth’,Birth 30:4 (2003), 248–54; Ulla Waldenström, ‘Why Do Some Women Change Their Opinion about Childbirth over Time?’,Birth 31:2 (2004), 102–7.​​​​​​​​​

  18. Gazzaniga,Who ’s in Charge? , ch. 3.​​​​​​​​​

  19. Jorge Luis Borges,Collected Fictions , translated by Andrew Hurley (New York:Penguin Books, 1999), 308–9.西班牙版本请见: Jorge Luis Borges, ‘Un problema’, inObras completas , vol. 3 (Buenos Aires:Emece Editores, 1968–9), 29–30.​​​​​​​​​

  20. Mark Thompson,The White War: Life and Death on the Italian Front, 1915-1919 (New York:Basic Books, 2009).​​​​​​​​​


  1. F. M. Anderson, ed.,The Constitutions and Other Select Documents Illustrative of the History of France:1789–1907 , 2nd edn (Minneapolis:H. W. Wilson, 1908), 184–5; Alan Forrest, ‘L’armée de l’an II: la levée en masse et la créa tion d’un m y t he ré pu b li cain’,A n na le s hi s to ri que s de la Révo lu tion f ran cai s 335 (2004), 111–30.​​​​​​​​​

  2. Morris Edmund Spears, ed.,World War Issues and Ideals:Readings in Contemporary History and Literature (Boston and New York:Ginn and Company, 1918), 242.还有一项最重要的近期研究,得到正反双方的一致广泛引用,也尝试证明民主体制的士兵战斗力较强: Dan Reiter and Allan C. Stam,Democracies at War (Princeton:Princeton University Press, 2002).​​​​​​​​​

  3. Doris Stevens,Jailed for Freedom (New York:Boni and Liveright, 1920), 290.同时参见Susan R. Grayzel, Women and the First World War (Harlow:Longman, 2002), 101–6; Christine Bolt,The Women ’s Movements in the United States and Britain from the 1790s to the 1920s (Amherst:University of Massachusetts Press, 1993), 236–76; Birgitta Bader-Zaar, ‘Women’s Suffrage and War:World War I and Political Reform in a Comparative Perspective’, inSuffrage, Gender and Citizenship:International Perspectives on Parliamentary Reforms , ed. Irma Sulkunen, Seija-Leena Nevala-Nurmi and Pirjo Markkola (Newcastle upon Tyne:Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2009), 193–218.​​​​​​​​​

  4. Matt Richtel and Conor Dougherty, ‘Google’s Driverless Cars Run Into Problem:Cars With Drivers’,New York Times , 1 September 2015, accessed 2 September 2015, http://www.nytimes.com/2015/09/02/technology/personaltech/google-says-its-not-the-driverless-cars-fault-its-other-drivers.html?_r=1; Shawn DuBravac,Digital Destiny:How the New Age of Data Will Transform the Way We Work, Live and Communicate (Washington DC:Regnery Publishing, 2015), 127–56.​​​​​​​​​

  5. Bradley Hope, ‘Lawsuit Against Exchanges Over “Unfair Advantage”for High-Frequency Traders Dismissed’,Wall Street Journal ,29 April 2015, accessed 6 October 2015, http://www.wsj.com/articles/lawsuit-against-exchanges-overunfair-advantage-for-high-frequency-traders-dismissed-1430326045; David Levine, ‘High-Frequency Trading Machines Favored Over Humans by CME Group, Lawsuit Claims’,Huffington Post , 26 June 2012, accessed 6 October 2015, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/06/26/high-frequency-tradinglawsuit_n_1625648.html; Lu Wang, Whitney Kisling and Eric Lam, ‘Fake Post Erasing $136 Billion Shows Markets Need Humans’, Bloomberg, 23 April 2013, accessed 22 December 2014, http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2013–04–23/fake-report-erasing-136–billion-shows-market-s-fragility.html; Matthew Philips, ‘How the Robots Lost:High-Frequency Trading’s Rise and Fall’,Bloomberg Businessweek , 6 June 2013, accessed 22 December 2014, http://www.businessweek.com/printer/articles/123468–how-the-robots-lost-high-frequencytradings-rise-and-fall; Steiner,Automate This , 2–5, 11–52; Luke Dormehl,The Formula:How Algorithms Solve All Our Problems – And Create More (London:Penguin, 2014), 223.​​​​​​​​​

  6. Jordan Weissmann, ‘iLawyer:What Happens when Computers Replace Attorneys?’,Atlantic , 19 June 2012, accessed 22 December 2014, http://www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2012/06/ilawyer-what-happens-whencomputers-replace-attorneys/258688; John Markoff, ‘Armies of Expensive Lawyers, Replaced by Cheaper Software’,New York Times , 4 March 2011, accessed 22 December 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2011/03/05/science/05legal.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0; Adi Narayan, ‘The fMRI Brain Scan:A Better Lie Detector?’,Time , 20 July 2009, accessed 22 December 2014, http://content.time.com/time/health/article/0,8599,1911546–2,00.html; Elena Rusconi and Timothy Mitchener-Nissen, ‘Prospects of Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging as Lie Detector’,Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7:54 (2013); Steiner,Automate This ,217; Dormehl,The Formula , 229.​​​​​​​​​

  7. B. P. Woolf,Building Intelligent Interactive Tutors:Student-centered Strategies for Revolutionizing E-learning (Burlington:Morgan Kaufmann, 2010); Annie Murphy Paul, ‘The Machines are Taking Over’,New York Times , 14 September 2012, accessed 22 December 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2012/09/16/magazine/how-computerized-tutors-are-learning-to-teachhumans.html?_r=0; P. J. Munoz-Merino, C. D. Kloos and M. Munoz-Organero, ‘Enhancement of Student Learning Through the Use of a Hinting Computer e-Learning System and Comparison With Human Teachers’,IEEE Transactions on Education 54:1 (2011), 164–7;Mindojo , accessed 14 July 2015, http://mindojo.com/.

  8. Steiner,Automate This , 146–62; Ian Steadman, ‘IBM’s Watson Is Better at Diagnosing Cancer than Human Doctors’,Wired , 11 February 2013, accessed 22 December 2014, http://www.wired.co.uk/news/archive/2013–02/11/ibmwatson-medical-doctor; ‘Watson Is Helping Doctors Fight Cancer’, IBM, accessed 22 December 2014, http://www-03.ibm.com/innovation/us/watson/watson_in_healthcare.shtml; Vinod Khosla, ‘Technology Will Replace 80 per cent of What Doctors Do’,Fortune , 4 December 2012, accessed 22 December 2014, http://tech.fortune.cnn.com/2012/12/04/technology-doctors-khosla; Ezra Klein, ‘How Robots Will Replace Doctors’,Washington Post , 10 January 2011, accessed 22 December 2014, http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/wonkblog/post/how-robots-will-replace-doctors/2011/08/25/gIQASA17AL_blog.html.

  9. Tzezana,The Guide to the Future , 62–4.​​​​​​​​​

  10. Steiner,Automate This , 155.​​​​​​​​​

  11. http://www.mattersight.com.

  12. Steiner,Automate This , 178–82; Dormehl,The Formula , 21–4; Shana Lebowitz, ‘Every Time You Dial into These Call Centers, Your Personality Is Being Silently Assessed’,Business Insider , 3 September 2015, retrieved 31 January 2016, http://www.businessinsider.com/how-mattersight-usespersonality-science-2015-9.

  13. Rebecca Morelle, ‘Google Machine Learns to Master Video Games’, BBC, 25 February 2015, accessed 12 August 2015, http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-31623427; Elizabeth Lopatto, ‘Google’s AI Can Learn to Play Video Games’,The Verge , 25 February 2015, accessed 12 August 2015, http://www.theverge.com/2015/2/25/8108399/google-ai-deepmind-video-games; Volodymyr Mnih et al., ‘Human-Level Control through Deep Reinforcement Learning’,Nature , 26 February 2015, accessed 12 August 2015, http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v518/n7540/full/nature14236.html​​​​​​​​​

  14. Michael Lewis,Moneyball:The Art of Winning An Unfair Game (New York:W. W. Norton, 2003).同时参见2011年的电影《点球成金》(Moneyball),由贝尼特 ·米勒(Bennett Miller)执导,布拉德 ·皮特饰演比恩。​​​​​​​​​

  15. Frank Levy and Richard Murnane,The New Division of Labor:How Computers are Creating the Next Job Market (Princeton:Princeton University Press, 2004); Dormehl,The Formula , 225–6.​​​​​​​​​

  16. Tom Simonite, ‘When Your Boss is an Uber Algoritm’,MIT Technology Review , 1 December 2015, retrieved 4 February 2016, https://www.technologyreview.com/s/543946/when-your-boss-is-an-uber-algorithm/.

  17. Simon Sharwood, ‘Software “Appointed to Board”of Venture Capital Firm’,The Register , 18 May 2014, accessed 12 August 2015, http://www.theregister.co.uk/2014/05/18/software_appointed_to_board_of_venture_capital_firm/; John Bates, ‘I’m the Chairman of the Board’,Huffington Post , 6 April 2014, accessed 12 August 2015, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/john-bates/imthe-chairman-of-the-bo_b_5440591.html; Colm Gorey, ‘I’m Afraid I Can’t Invest in That, Dave:AI Appointed to VC Funding Board’,Silicon Republic , 15 May 2014, accessed 12 August 2015, https://www.siliconrepublic.com/discovery/2014/05/15/im-afraid-i-cant-invest-in-that-dave-ai-appointed-to-vcfunding-board.

  18. Steiner,Automate This , 89–101; D. H. Cope,Comes the Fiery Night:2,000 Haiku by Man and Machine (Santa Cruz:Create Space, 2011).同时参见: Dormehl,The Formula , 174–80, 195–8, 200–2, 216–20; Steiner,Automate This , 75–89.​​​​​​​​​

  19. Carl Benedikt Frey and Michael A. Osborne, ‘The Future of Employment:How Susceptible Are Jobs to Computerisation?’, 17 September 2013, accessed 12 August 2015, http://www.oxfordmartin.ox.ac.uk/downloads/academic/The_Future_of_Employment.pdf.

  20. E. Brynjolfsson and A. McAffee,Race Againt the Machine:How the Digital Revolution is Accelerating Innovation, Driving Productivity, and Irreversibly Transforming Employment and the Economy (Lexington:Digital Frontier Press, 2011).​​​​​​​​​

  21. Nick Bostrom,Superintelligence:Paths, Dangers, Strategies (Oxford:Oxford University Press, 2014).​​​​​​​​​

  22. Ido Efrati, ‘Researchers Conducted a Successful Experiment with an “Artificial Pancreas”Connected to an iPhone’ [in Hebrew],Haaretz , 17 June 2014, accessed 23 December 2014, http://www.haaretz.co.il/news/health/1.2350956.Moshe Phillip et al., ‘Nocturnal.Glucose Control with an Artificial Pancreas at a Diabetis Camp’,New England Journal of Medicine 368:9 (2013), 824–33; ‘Artificial Pancreas Controlled by iPhone Shows Promise in Diabetes Trial’,Today , 17 June 2014, accessed 22 December 2014, http://www.todayonline.com/world/artificial-pancreas-controlled-iphone-shows-promisediabetes-trial?singlepage=true​​​​​​​​​

  23. Dormehl,The Formula , 7–16.​​​​​​​​​

  24. Martha Mendoza, ‘Google Develops Contact Lens Glucose Monitor’, Yahoo News, 17 January 2014, accessed 12 August 2015, http://news.yahoo.com/google-develops-contact-lens-glucose-monitor-000147894.html; Mark Scott, ‘Novartis Joins with Google to Develop Contact Lens That Monitors Blood Sugar’,New York Times , 15 July 2014, accessed 12 August 2015, http://www.nytimes.com/2014/07/16/business/international/novartis-joins-with-googleto-develop-contact-lens-to-monitor-blood-sugar.html?_r=0; Rachel Barclay, ‘Google Scientists Create Contact Lens to Measure Blood Sugar Level in Tears’, Healthline, 23 January 2014, accessed 12 August 2015, http://www.healthline.com/health-news/diabetes-google-develops-glucose-monitoring-contactlens-012314.

  25. ‘Quantified Self’, http://quantifiedself.com/; Dormehl,The Formula , 11–16.​​​​​​​​​

  26. Dormehl,The Formula , 91–5; ‘Bedpost’, http://bedposted.com.

  27. Dormehl,The Formula , 53–9.​​​​​​​​​

  28. Angelina Jolie, ‘My Medical Choice’,New York Times , 14 May 2013, accessed 22 December 2014, http://www.nytimes.com/2013/05/14/opinion/mymedical-choice.html.

  29. ‘Google Flu Trends’, http://www.google.org/flutrends/about/how.html; Jeremy Ginsberg et al., ‘Detecting Influenza Epidemics Using Search Engine Query Data’,Nature , 457:7232 (2008), 1012–14; Declan Butler, ‘When Google Got Flu Wrong’,Nature , 13 February 2013, accessed 22 December 2014, http://www.nature.com/news/when-google-got-flu-wrong-1.12413; Miguel Helft, ‘Google Uses Searches to Track Flu’s Spread’, New York Times, 11 November 2008, accessed 22 December 2014, http://msl1.mit.edu/furdlog/docs/nytimes/2008–11–11_nytimes_google_influenza.pdf; Samanth Cook et al., ‘Assessing Google Flu Trends Performance in the United States during the 2009 Influenza Virus A (H1N1) Pandemic’,PLOS One , 19 August 2011, accessed 22 December 2014, http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0023610; Jeffrey Shaman et al., ‘RealTime Inluenza Forecasts during the 2012–2013 Season’,Nature , 23 April 2013, accessed 24 December 2014, http://www.nature.com/ncomms/2013/131203/ncomms3837/full/ncomms3837.html.

  30. Alistair Barr, ‘Google’s New Moonshot Project:The Human Body’,Wall Street Journal , 24 July 2014, accessed 22 December 2014, http://www.wsj.com/articles/google-to-collect-data-to-define-healthy-human-1406246214; Nick Summers, ‘Google Announces Google Fit Platform Preview for Developers’, Next Web, 25 June 2014, accessed 22 December 2014, http://thenextweb.com/insider/2014/06/25/google-launches-google-fit-platform-preview-developers/.

  31. Dormehl,The Formula , 72–80.​​​​​​​​​

  32. Wu Youyou, Michal Kosinski and David Stillwell, ‘Computer-Based Personality Judgements Are More Accurate Than Those Made by Humans’,PNAS 112:4 (2015), 1036–40.​​​​​​​​​

  33. 关于先知、代理人和君主的概念,参见: Bostrom,Superintelligence .​​​​​​​​​

  34. https://www.waze.com/.

  35. Dormehl,The Formula , 206.​​​​​​​​​

  36. World Bank,World Development Indicators 2012 (Washington DC:World Bank, 2012), 72, http://data.worldbank.org/sites/default/files/wdi-2012–ebook.pdf.

  37. Larry Elliott, ‘Richest 62 People as Wealthy as Half of World’s Population, Says Oxfam’,Guardian , 18 January 2016, retrieved 9 February 2016, http://www.theguardian.com/business/2016/jan/18/richest-62-billionaireswealthy-half-world-population-combined; Tami Luhby, ‘The 62 Richest People Have As Much Wealth As Half the World’,CNN Money , 18 January 2016, retrieved 9 February 2016, http://money.cnn.com/2016/01/17/news/economy/oxfam-wealth/.


  1. ‘EM spectrum’.Licensed under CC BY-SA 3.0 via Commons, https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:EM_spectrum.svg#/media/File:EM_spectrum.svg​​​​​​​​​

  2. Joseph Henrich, Steven J. Heine and Ara Norenzayan, ‘The Weirdest People in the World’,Behavioral and Brain Sciences 33 (2010), 61–135.​​​​​​​​​

  3. Benny Shanon,Antipodes of the Mind:Charting the Phenome- nology of the Ayahuasca Experience (Oxford:Oxford University Press, 2002).​​​​​​​​​

  4. Thomas Nagel, ‘What Is It Like to Be a Bat?’,Philosophical Review 83:4 (1974), 435–50.​​​​​​​​​

  5. Michael J. Noad et al., ‘Cultural Revolution in Whale Songs’,Nature 408:6812 (2000), 537; Nina Eriksen et al., ‘Cultural Change in the Songs of Humpback Whales (Megaptera novaeangliae ) from Tonga’,Behavior 142:3 (2005), 305–28; E. C. M. Parsons, A. J. Wright and M. A. Gore, ‘The Nature of Humpback Whale (Megaptera novaeangliae ) Song’,Journal of Marine Animals and Their Ecology 1:1 (2008), 22–31.​​​​​​​​​

  6. C. Bushdid et al., ‘Human can Discriminate More than 1 Trillion Olfactory Stimuli’,Science 343:6177 (2014),1370–2; Peter A. Brennan and Frank Zufall, ‘Pheromonal Communication in Vertebrates’,Nature 444:7117 (2006), 308–15; Jianzhi Zhang and David M. Webb, ‘Evolutionary Deterioration of the Vomeronasal Pheromone Transduction Pathway in Catarrhine Primates’,Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 100:14 (2003), 8337–41; Bettina Beer, ‘Smell, Person, Space and Memory’,Experiencing New Worlds, ed. Jurg Wassmann and Kathrina Stockhaus (New York:Berghahn Books, 2007), 187–200; Niclas Burenhult and Majid Asifa, ‘Olfaction in Aslian Ideology and Language’,Sense and Society 6:1 (2011), 19–29; Constance Classen, David Howes and Anthony Synnott,Aroma:The Cultural History of Smell (London:Routledge, 1994); Amy Pei-jung Lee, ‘Reduplication and Odor in Four Formosan Languages’,Language and Linguistics 11:1 (2010):99–126;Walter E. A. van Beek, ‘The Dirty Smith:Smell as a Social Frontier among the Kapsiki/Higi of North Cameroon and North-Eastern Nigeria’,Africa 62:1 (1992), 38–58; Ewelina Wnuk and Asifa Majid, ‘Revisiting the Limits of Language:The Odor Lexicon of Maniq’,Cognition 131 (2014), 125–38.

  然而,有些学者认为人类之所以失去强大的嗅觉能力,是因为某些更古老的进化过程。参见: Yoav Gilad et al., ‘Human Specific Loss of Olfactory Receptor Genes’,Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 100:6 (2003), 3324–7; Atushi Matsui, Yasuhiro Go and Yoshihito Niimura, ‘Degeneration of Olfactory Receptor Gene Repertories in Primates:No Direct Link to Full Trichromatic Vision’,Molecular Biology and Evolution 27:5 (2010), 1192–200; Graham M. Hughes, Emma C. Teeling and Desmond G. Higgins, “Loss of Olfactory Receptor Function in Hominin Evolution”,PLOS One 9:1 (2014), e84714.

  7. Matthew Crawford,The World Beyond Your Head:How to Flourish in an Age of Distraction (London:Viking, 2015).​​​​​​​​​

  8. Turnbull and Solms,TheBrain and the Inner World , 136–59; Kelly Bulkeley,Visions of the Night:Dreams, Religion and Psychology (New York:State University of New York Press, 1999); Andreas Mavrematis,Hypnogogia:The Unique State of Consciousness Between Wakefulness and Sleep (London:Routledge, 1987); Brigitte Holzinger, Stephen LaBerge and Lynn Levitan, ‘Psychophysiological Correlates of Lucid Dreaming’,American Psychological Association 16:2 (2006):88–95; Watanabe Tsuneo, ‘Lucid Dreaming:Its Experimental Proof and Psychological Conditions’,Journal of International Society of Life Information Science 21:1 (2003):159–62; Victor I. Spoormaker and Jan van den Bout, ‘Lucid Dreaming Treatment for Nightmares:A Pilot Study’,Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics 75:6 (2006):389–94.​​​​​​​​​


  1. 例如参见: Kevin Kelly,What Technology Wants (New York: Viking Press, 2010); César Hidalgo,Why Information Grows:The Evolution of Order, From Atoms to Economies (New York:Basic Books, 2015); Howard Bloom,Global Brain:The Evolution of Mass Mind from the Big Bang to the 21st Century (Hoboken:Wiley, 2001); DuBravac,Digital Destiny .​​​​​​​​​

  2. Friedrich Hayek, ‘The Use of Knowledge in Society,’American Economic Review 35:4 (1945):519–30.​​​​​​​​​

  3. Kiyohiko G. Nishimura,Imperfect Competition Differential Information and the Macro-foundations of Macro-economy (Oxford:Oxford University Press, 1992); Frank M. Machovec,Perfect Competition and the Transformation of Economics (London:Routledge, 2002); Frank V. Mastrianna,Basic Economics , 16th edn (Mason:South-Western, 2010), 78–89; Zhiwu Chen, ‘Freedom of Information and the Economic Future of Hong Kong’,Hong Kong Centre for Economic Research 74 (2003); Randall Morck, Bernard Yeung and Wayne Yu, ‘The Information Content of Stock Markets:Why Do Emerging Markets Have Synchronous Stock Price Movements?’,Journal of Financial Economics 58:1 (2000), 215–60; Louis H. Ederington and Jae Ha Lee, ‘How Markets Process Information:News Releases and Volatility’,Journal of Finance 48:4 (1993), 1161–91; Mark L. Mitchell and J. Harold Mulherin, ‘The Impact of Public Information on the Stock Market’,Journal of Finance 49:3 (1994):923–50; JeanJacques Laffont and Eric S. Maskin, ‘The Efficient Market Hypothesis and Insider Trading on the Stock Market’,Journal of Political Economy 98:1 (1990), 70–93; Steven R. Salbu, ‘Differentiated Perspectives on Insider Trading:The Effect of Paradigm Selection on Policy’,St John ’s Law Review 66:2 (1992), 373–405.​​​​​​​​​

  4. Valery N. Soyfer, ‘New Light on the Lysenko Era’,Nature 339:6224 (1989), 415–20; Nils Roll-Hansen, ‘Wishful Science:The Persistence of T. D. Lysenko’s Agrobiology in the Politics of Science’,Osiris 23:1 (2008), 166–88.​​​​​​​​​

  5. William H. McNeill and J. R. McNeill,The Human Web:A Bird ’s-Eye View of World History (New York:W. W. Norton, 2003).​​​​​​​​​

  6. Aaron Swartz, ‘Guerilla Open Access Manifesto’, July 2008, accessed 22 December 2014, https://ia700808.us.archive.org/17/items/GuerillaOpenAccessManifesto/Goamjuly2008.pdf; Sam Gustin, ‘Aaron Swartz, Tech Prodigy and Internet Activist, Is Dead at 26’,Time , 13 January 2013, accessed 22 December 2014, http://business.time.com/2013/01/13/tech-prodigyand-internet-activist-aaron-swartz-commits-suicide; Todd Leopold, ‘How Aaron Swartz Helped Build the Internet’, CNN, 15 January 2013, 22 December 2014, http://edition.cnn.com/2013/01/15/tech/web/aaron-swartz-internet/; Declan McCullagh, ‘Swartz Didn’t Face Prison until Feds Took Over Case, Report Says’, CNET, 25 January 2013, accessed 22 December 2014, http://news.cnet.com/8301–13578_3–57565927–38/swartz-didnt-face-prison-until-feds-took-overcase-report-says/.

  7. John Sousanis, ‘World Vehicle Population Tops 1 Billion Units’,Wardsauto , 15 August 2011, accessed 3 December 2015, http://wardsauto.com/news-analysis/world-vehicle-population-tops-1-billion-units.

  8. ‘No More Woof’, https://www.indiegogo.com/projects/no-more-woof​​​​​​​​​.


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